Sand Casting Step by Step


The following is a step by step guide for information purposes only, you should be trained, supervised and confident before attempting any form of casting. See your teacher for further details if required.


Arrange patterns & runner in drag portion of flask turned upside down on follow board.
Runner shall be at least 1" from edge of mould, patterns can be as close as 1/4" on small moulds.
Patterns on the right are a set of guides for a moulding flask.
Left is a belt buckle (on white cope plate) and a HFA plaque.




Apply minimal parting dust




Cover patterns where detail is desired, with a riddled fine facing sand.
An oil-based sand is used in this mould, orange coloured.
Green sand that has not been used is also acceptable, white colour.




Use riddle to totally cover patterns with sand.




Pinch sand around odd-shaped patterns




After filling drag with sand, use a ramming paddle to tuck outside edge of mould




With the peen side of rammer, make a right to left pattern evenly in the sand.




Ram sand in an up and down pattern with the peen side of rammer.




After filling drag 2" past the top, ram with butt of rammer in a right to left pattern




Strike off drag until level.




With 1/4" of loose sand on level surface of drag, lay bottom board on drag.




Move bottom board back and forth about 1" pressing down until board sits firmly




Flip drag, clamps can simplify this process.




Follow board removed









Remove white cope plate from buckle and wood spacer that held centre guide pin horizontal while ramming









Smooth all rough areas with trowel and slick (spoon),
cutting sand down to parting line on all patterns (coping out).




Apply parting dust and cope section of flask




Mark vent location with slick.




Riddle sand on drag




Completely covering drag




After filling cope to the top, tuck outside edge with ramming paddle




Ram right to left with peen side of rammer.




Ram top to bottom with peen side of rammer.




Fill cope to 2" past top and ram with butt side of rammer




Strike off cope and smooth with trowel.




Remove cope by lifting straight up. Fancy guide pins will not help.




Cope and drag.




Cut sprue with hand on opposite side of mould Sprue cutter is used with a slight twisting motion.




Form pop-up (pressure release) in centre of runner impression in cope.




Hand is place opposite pop-up while forming.




Vents made in cope




Lightly push vents and pop-up openings with finger to round edges, pack sand, and remove loose sand.




Slick around sprue opening.




Cutting gate in cope to buckle 1/8" deep, 1/8" into casting.




Gates cut into guide moulds., then slicked.




Cut pouring cup into cope with trowel.




Slick pouring cup, pop-up vents of all loose sand, then blow entire cope with low air pressure.




Remove runner pattern from drag.




Form sprue base with wood part of trowel.




Slick around sprue base and runner, slightly rounding sharp edges and removing loose sand.




Cut gate into plaque pattern while holding pattern down, then slick.




Connect casting and vent with small channel.




Swab around patterns slightly to moisten sand.




Lightly rap patterns to loosen from sand.




Removing pattern




Remove last pattern and repair tears or defects in mould or gates




Lightly dust with parting dust and blow out drag with low air pressure.




Completed drag.




Replace cope onto drag.




Completed Mould




Steel crucible and scrap aluminium.




Place crucible into furnace and fill loosely with aluminium.




Light furnace and place lid on furnace.




Place remaining metal to be melted in furnace exhaust to preheat as it is added to heat.




Preheat skimmer.




2 minutes after last piece has melted begin to take temperature.




Turn off furnace (gas, then air) when the aluminium. reaches 1350 F.
While you skim the dross the temperature continues to rise to 1400 .




Remove lid, dross and impurities rise to the top.




Remove dross with skimmer.




Remove crucible from furnace with shank.




Position crucible for pouring.




Molten aluminium. entering mould cavity.




Vent location after pouring.




Mould and weight removed




Cope flask removed.




Drag and casting.




Drag and casting




Completed Casting!